Definitions of mental retardation have varied widely over the years and from discipline to discipline. The AAMR definition of mental retardation states that
Mental retardation refers to substantial limitations in present functioning. It is characterized by significantly sub average intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptive skills areas: communication, self care, home living, social skills, community use, self direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work. Mental retardation manifests before the age of 18.
The most common are:
Mental retardation is diagnosed by looking at two main things. These are:
As many as 3 out of every 100 children in the country have mental retardation
There are many signs of mental retardation.
The remaining 13% of people with mental retardation score below 50 on IQ tests. These people will have more difficulty in school, at home, and in the community. A person with more severe retardation will need more intensive support his or her entire life. Every child with mental retardation is able to learn, develop, and grow. With help, all children with mental retardation can live a satisfying life.
Difficulties with education and training:
A child with mental retardation can do well in school but is likely to need individualized help.
For children up to age three, services are provided through an early intervention system. Staffs work with the child's family to develop what is known as an Individualized Family Services Plan, or IFSP. The IFSP will describe the child's unique needs. It also describes the services the child will receive to address those needs. The IFSP will emphasize the unique needs of the family, so that parents and other family members will know how to help their young child with mental retardation.
For eligible school-aged children (including preschoolers), special education and related services are made available through the school system. School staffs will work with the child's parents to develop an Individualized Education Program, or IEP. The IEP is similar to an IFSP. It describes the child's unique needs and the services that have been designed to meet those needs.
Many children with mental retardation need help with adaptive skills, which are skills needed to live, work, and play in the community. Teachers and parents can help a child work on these skills at both school and home. Some of these skills include:
The DSM-IV classification system continues to describe those with mental retardation in terms of degrees of severity that reflect the measured level of intellectual functioning. Four degrees of severity are employed, with a fifth category reflecting situations in which the person's intelligence is unstable. The classifications are:
Moderate disability (IQ 50-60) is nearly always obvious within the first years of life. These people will encounter difficulty in school, at home, and in the community. In many cases they will need to join special, usually separate, classes in school, but they can still progress to become functioning members of society. As adults they may live with their parents, in a supportive group home, or even semi-independently with significant supportive services to help them, for example, manage their finances.
Among people with intellectual disabilities, only about one in eight will score below 50 on IQ tests. A person with a more severe disability will need more intensive support and supervision his or her entire life.
The limitations of cognitive function will cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child. Children may take longer to learn to speak, walk, and take care of their personal needs such as dressing or eating. They will have trouble learning in school. Learning will take them longer, require more repetition, and there may be some things they cannot learn. The extent of the limits of learning is a function of the severity of the disability.
Nevertheless, virtually every child is able to learn, develop, and grow to some extent.
By most definitions it is more accurately considered a disability rather than a disease. Currently, there is no "cure" for an established disability, though with appropriate support and teaching, most individuals can learn to do many things.
Although there is no specific medication for "mental retardation", many people with developmental disabilities have further medical complications and may take several medications. Beyond that there are specific programs that people with developmental disabilities can take part in wherein they learn basic life skills. These "goals" may take a much longer amount of time for them to accomplish, but the ultimate goal is independence. This may be anything from independence in tooth brushing to an independent residence. People with developmental disabilities learn throughout their lives and can obtain many new skills even late in life with the help of their families, caregivers, clinicians and the people who coordinate the efforts of all of these people.